Discovering Peru

About Peru

Its official name is the "Republic of Peru". It gained its independence on the 28th of July 1821.

According to its Political Constitution (issued in 1993), Peru is a democratic, social, independent and sovereign republic. In addition, its state is one and indivisible. Its government is unitary, representative, decentralized, and it organizes following the principle of the separation of powers: Executive, Legislative and Judicial.   

Its Constitutional President is elected by the people for a period of five years. The Presidency of the Republic also includes two vice-presidents. The Legislative Power has an unicameral Congress of 120 representatives, also elected by the people. The current President of the Republic is H.E. Mr. Martín Vizcarra Cornejo.

Peru is the third largest country in South America and one of the 20 largest countries in the world. Its sovereignty extends over 200 nautical miles. Having been a consultative party to the Antarctic Treaty, Peru has a Scientific Base called Machu Picchu on that continent. According to the population census, Peru has around 30 million habitants.


Location and Geography

Peru is located in the west of South America, and has borders with Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia and Chile.

It has sovereignty over 1,285,215 KM2 of land and 200 nautical miles of the Pacific Ocean, as well as 60 million hectares of the Antarctic.

Peru is an extremely diverse country, with 11 ecological regions and 84 of the world’s 117 different types of “life zones”. It has a huge variety of scenery, thanks to its geography, which also provides it with a wide range of natural resources. The country has three main regions according to the traditional method of dividing the country by altitude: coast, mountains and jungle.


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